Doctrine of Christ Series

Scroll down to find the notes for this series

Session 1: The Eternal Son of God

Session 2: The Man Without Sin

SESSION 3: Fully God & Fully Man

SESSION 4: Atonement for Sin

SESSION 5: Raised to Glory

SESSION 6: The Return of the King

SERIES OUTLINE

What is Christology?

  • “The Study of Christ”
  • It is the branch of Christian theology relating to the person, nature, and role of Christ.

What do we believe about Christ?

1.     Council of Chalcedon (451 AD)

We. . . confess one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, the same perfect in Godhead and also perfect in manhood, truly God and truly man, of a reasonable soul and body; consubstantial [homoousios] with the Father according to the Godhead, and consubstantial [homoousios] with us according to the manhood, like us in all things except sin; begotten before all ages of the Father according to the Godhead, and in these latter days, for us and for our salvation, born of the Virgin

Mary, the Mother of God [theotokos], according to the manhood, one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-Begotten, to be acknowledged in two natures without confusion, without change, without division, without separation, the difference of the natures being by no means taken away because of the union, but rather the property of each nature being preserved, and concurring in one Person [prosopon] and one Subsistence [hypostasis], not divided or separated into two Persons, but one and the same Son and only-begotten God, Word, Lord Jesus Christ.

2.     Athanasian Creed (500 AD)

  • … it is necessary to eternal salvation that he also believe faithfully the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ. The right faith therefore is that we believe and confess that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and Man.
  • He is God of the substance of the Father begotten before the worlds, and He is man of the substance of His mother born in the world; perfect God, perfect man subsisting of a reasoning soul and human flesh; equal to the Father as touching His Godhead, inferior to the Father as touching His Manhood.
  • Who although He be God and Man yet He is not two but one Christ; one however not by conversion of the GodHead in the flesh, but by taking of the Manhood in God; one altogether not by confusion of substance but by unity of Person. For as the reasoning soul and flesh is one man, so God and Man is one Christ.
  • Who suffered for our salvation, descended into hell, rose again from the dead, ascended into heaven, sits at the right hand of the Father, from whence He shall come to judge the living and the dead. At whose coming all men shall rise again with their bodies and shall give account for their own works. And they that have done good shall go into life eternal, and they who indeed have done evil into eternal fire.

3.     Baptist Faith and Message (2000 AD)

Christ is the eternal Son of God. In His incarnation as Jesus Christ He was conceived of the Holy Spirit and born of the virgin Mary. Jesus perfectly revealed and did the will of God, taking upon Himself human nature with its demands and necessities and identifying Himself completely with mankind yet without sin. He honored the divine law by His personal obedience, and in His substitutionary death on the cross He made provision for the redemption of men from sin. He was raised from the dead with a glorified body and appeared to His disciples as the person who was with them before His crucifixion. He ascended into heaven and is now exalted at the right hand of God where He is the One Mediator, fully God, fully man, in whose Person is effected the reconciliation between God and man. He will return in power and glory to judge the world and to consummate His redemptive mission. He now dwells in all believers as the living and ever-present Lord.

SESSION 1

Christ is the eternal Son of God

  1. Son of God

Baptism: Matthew 3:16-17

16 When He had been baptized, Jesus came up immediately from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened to Him, and He[a] saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting upon Him. 17 And suddenly a voice came from heaven, saying, “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.”

The Transfiguration: Luke 9:32-36

32 “But Peter and those with him were heavy with sleep; and when they were fully awake, they saw His glory and the two men who stood with Him. 33 Then it happened, as they were parting from Him, that Peter said to Jesus, “Master, it is good for us to be here; and let us make three tabernacles: one for You, one for Moses, and one for Elijah”—not knowing what he said. 34 While he was saying this, a cloud came and overshadowed them; and they were fearful as they entered the cloud. 35 And a voice came out of the cloud, saying, “This is My beloved Son. Hear Him!” 36 When the voice had ceased, Jesus was found alone. But they kept quiet, and told no one in those days any of the things they had seen.

John’s purpose in writing: John 20:30-31

30 And truly Jesus did many other signs in the presence of His disciples, which are not written in this book; 31 but these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in His name.

NOT Father/Son as we think in human terms

  • To be the Son of God is to be of the same nature as God. 
    • The Son of God is “of God.” The claim to be of the same nature as God—to in fact be God
      • Hebrews 1:3, “The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exact representation of His being.”
      • John 5:18, “18 Therefore the Jews sought all the more to kill Him, because He not only broke the Sabbath, but also said that God was His Father, making Himself equal with God.”

Eternal: He has always existed. 

  • John 1:1, 14 “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God” … ” And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.”
  • John 8:58 Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was born, I am.”
  • Isaiah 9:6 For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us; And the government will rest on His shoulders; And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace.
  • Colossians 1:17 He is before all things, and in Him all things hold together. xi. Hebrews 13:8 Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever.
  • Hebrews 7:3 Without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but made like the Son of God, he remains a priest perpetually.

Begotten vs Created

Created = Something different

  • An artist creates a sculpture. 
  • The Sculpture is not of the same type of thing as the artist
  • Artist is human, Sculpture is clay 

Begotten = Of the same kind of thing. 

  • A child is the same type of thing as their parent
  • Dogs beget puppies; Cats beget kittens; Cows beget calves; etc.

In His incarnation as Jesus Christ He was conceived of the Holy Spirit and born of the virgin Mary. 

Incarnation

More on the Incarnation later

 

Conceived of the Holy Spirit

  • Luke 1:35 declares, “The angel answered, ‘The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God.’”
  • God did NOT mate with Mary (Mormons believe this)

Virgin Mary

  • The word for “virgin” can refer to a young unmarried woman, but in the context of Scripture, it clearly means a literal virgin who has never been with a man. 
    • Luke 1:26-27, 34, “Now in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a city of Galilee named Nazareth, to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin’s name was Mary … Then Mary said to the angel, “How can this be, since I do not know a man?””
    • Matthew 1:24-25, “Then Joseph, being aroused from sleep, did as the angel of the Lord commanded him and took to him his wife, and did not know her till she had brought forth her firstborn Son. And he called His name JESUS.”

  • Perpetual Virginity?
    • No.
    • Jesus had brothers and sisters.
    • No Biblical text indicates anything but a regular marriage between Mary & Joseph

SESSION 2

  1. Jesus perfectly revealed and did the will of God
    • John 12:49, “For I have not spoken on My own authority; but the Father who sent Me gave Me a command, what I should say and what I should speak.”
    • John 5:19, “Then Jesus answered and said to them, “Most assuredly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of Himself, but what He sees the Father do; for whatever He does, the Son also does in like manner.”
    • John 5:30, “I do not seek My own will but the will of the Father who sent Me.

If you want to know what God is like, look to Jesus

Other heroes of the faith were flawed and sinful.

  • Their sinful deeds mixed in with their godly deeds.
  • They do not offer a perfect picture of God’s will.
    • Noah
    • Abraham
    • Moses
    • David

Jesus was without sin, and so He was the perfect example of godly character

If Jesus is God, isn’t His will and the Father’s will already the same?

  • Monothelitism – one will
  • Dyothelitism – two wills
  • A nature necessarily includes a will
    • If Jesus has 2 natures (human and divine) he must have 2 wills
    • Monothelitism declared heresy at Council of Constantinople in 680

Jesus took upon Himself human nature with its demands and necessities and identifying Himself completely with mankind

  • Philippians 2:7, “[Jesus] made Himself of no reputation, taking the form of a bondservant, and coming in the likeness of men.” 
  • Luke 2:51-52, “Then He went down with [His parents] and came to Nazareth, and was subject to them, but His mother kept all these things in her heart. 52 And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and men.”
  • Mark 6:3, “Is this not the carpenter …?
  • Matthew 4:2, “And when He had fasted forty days and forty nights, afterward He was hungry.”
  • John 4:5-6, “So He came to a city of Samaria which is called Sychar, near the plot of ground that Jacob gave to his son Joseph. 6 Now Jacob’s well was there. Jesus therefore, being wearied from His journey, sat thus by the well. It was about the sixth hour.”
  • Mark 4:37-38, “And a great windstorm arose, and the waves beat into the boat, so that it was already filling. 38 But He was in the stern, asleep on a pillow.”

One of the main complaints that people have about those in authority over them is the disconnect of experience and knowledge.

  • “You don’t know what it is like to be me.”
  • Jesus knows
  • He got tired, got hungry, felt sorrow, laughed, likely got sick
  • Jesus lived a very human life
  • Hebrews 4:15, “For we do not have a high priest who is unable to empathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who has been tempted in every way, just as we are—yet he did not sin.”

Is Jesus still human now?

  • Acts 1:9-11, “… He was taken up before their very eyes, and a cloud hid him from their sight.” … And angel told them, “This same Jesus, who has been taken from you into heaven, will come back in the same way you have seen him go into heaven.”
  • 1 Timothy 2:5, “There is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus.”
  • Philippians 3:21, “[Christ] will transform our lowly bodies so that they will be like his glorious body.”
    • Heaven is a physical place

Could Jesus have held a wrong opinion, having been taught by humans of his day?

  • No.
  • His divine nature would have let Him see through the error
  • The same way He knew other people’s motives and reasoning
  • Jesus was without sin.
    • Hebrews 4:15, “For we do not have a High Priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but was in all points tempted as we are, yet without sin.
    • 1 Peter 2:22, “[Christ] committed no sin, Nor was deceit found in His mouth”
    • They had to lie at His trial to find anything to convict Him of
      • Mark 14:55-59, “The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were looking for evidence against Jesus so that they could put him to death, but they did not find any. 56 Many testified falsely against him, but their statements did not agree. 57 Then some stood up and gave this false testimony against him: 58 “We heard him say, ‘I will destroy this temple made with human hands and in three days will build another, not made with hands.’” 59 Yet even then their testimony did not agree.”

Could Jesus have sinned?

  • Yes, theoretically, in so far as it was within His power to accomplish a sinful deed.

Would Jesus have sinned?

  • No.
  • Though tempted, His will was fully submitted to the will of the Father. He would never choose to disobey.

Is it really such a big deal? He is God after all.

  • In order to be able to atone for OUR sin, He had to be sinless.
  • If Jesus had sinned, He would be in need of a savior as much as we are.

Does sin come through male DNA?

  • Sin is not a material issue
  • Sin spread to all of humanity, not just men

He honored the divine law by His personal obedience

  • Jesus Himself was born “under the law”
  • Galatians 4:4, “But when the fullness of the time had come, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the law”
  • He was circumcised on the 8th day according to the requirements of the law (Leviticus 12:3).
  • Luke 2:21, “And when eight days were completed for the circumcision of the Child, His name was called Jesus, the name given by the angel before He was conceived in the womb.”
  • In all things and in all ways, He kept the law perfectly
  • John 8:29, “And He who sent Me is with Me. The Father has not left Me alone, for I always do those things that please Him.”
  • John 8:55, “I do know [God] and keep His word.”

What about the times Jesus is accused of breaking the Law?

  • Matthew 12, Jesus’ disciples pick grain while walking through the field
  • Jesus heals on the Sabbath: Mark 3:1–6, Luke 6:6–10; 13:10–17; 14:1–6; John 5:1–18
  • In each of these instances, Jesus was violating manmade rules, not God’s Law

If Jesus kept the OT Law, does that mean that WE are supposed to as well?

  • OT Law was given to Israel, not Christians
  • OT Law is a single unit, either it all applies, or none of it does.
    • James 2:10, “For whoever keeps the whole law and yet stumbles at just one point is guilty of breaking all of it.”
  • Christ fulfilled the Old Covenant (Matthew 5:17)
  • And so we are not bound by the Law of the Old Covenant
    • Romans 10:4, “Christ is the culmination of the law so that there may be righteousness for everyone who believes.”
    • Galatians 3:23–25, “Before the coming of this faith, we were held in custody under the law, locked up until the faith that was to come would be revealed. 24 So the law was our guardian until Christ came that we might be justified by faith. 25 Now that this faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian.”
    • Ephesians 2:15, “by setting aside in his flesh the law with its commands and regulations. His purpose was to create in himself one new humanity out of the two, thus making peace”
  • In place of the Old Testament law, Christians are under the law of Christ (Galatians 6:2)
    • Matthew 22:37-39, “love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind…and to love your neighbor as yourself”.
  • Early Church Affirms This
    • Acts 15, Jerusalem Council issues letter to churches stating Gentiles don’t need circumcised.
    • Galatians 2, Paul rebukes Peter

SESSION 3

Fully God

  • John 20:28, “And Thomas answered and said to Him, “My Lord and my God!”
  • Hebrews 13:8, “’ Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today, and forever.
  • Philippians 2:6, “[Christ] being in the form of God, did not consider it robbery to be equal with God
  • Romans 1:3-4, “concerning His Son Jesus Christ our Lord … declared to be the Son of God with power according to the Spirit of holiness”
  • Colossians 2:9, “For in Him dwells all the fullness of the Godhead
  • Colossians 1:15-17, “He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. 16 For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. All things were created through Him and for Him. 17 And He is before all things, and in Him all things consist.

Fully Man

  • Philippians 2:7, “made Himself of no reputation, taking the form of a bondservant, and coming in the likeness of men.
  • Romans 1:3, “concerning His Son Jesus Christ our Lord, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh”

“Hypostatic Union”

Definition

  • The term used to describe how God the Son, Jesus Christ, took on a human nature, yet remained fully God at the same time.
  • “Hypostasis” = Substance or Nature
  • Literally, “that which lies beneath as basis or foundation”
  • Two Natures
  • What is a “nature”?
    • Latin “natura” – from “nasci” – which means “to be born”
    • Essentially: “That which is primitive and original,” or, “that which a thing is at birth, as opposed to that which is acquired or added from external sources.”
    • The set of properties that make a thing what it is.
      • Divine nature: eternal, uncreated, omnipotent, omnipresent, necessary, etc.
      • Human nature: temporal, created, limited, finite, contingent, etc.
      • What it means to be human + What it means to be God = Jesus

One Person

  • Jesus doesn’t have Multiple Personality Disorder

Chalcedonian Definition (AD 451):

  • Therefore, following the holy fathers, we all with one accord teach men to acknowledge one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, at once complete in Godhead and complete in manhood, truly God and truly man, consisting also of a reasonable soul and body; of one substance with the Father as regards his Godhead, and at the same time of one substance with us as regards his manhood; like us in all respects, apart from sin; as regards his Godhead, begotten of the Father before the ages, but yet as regards his manhood begotten, for us men and for our salvation, of Mary the Virgin, the God-bearer; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten, recognized in two natures, without confusion, without change, without division, without separation; the distinction of natures being in no way annulled by the union, but rather the characteristics of each nature being preserved and coming together to form one person and subsistence, not as parted or separated into two persons, but one and the same Son and Only-begotten God the Word, Lord Jesus Christ; even as the prophets from earliest times spoke of him, and our Lord Jesus Christ himself taught us, and the creed of the fathers has handed down to us.
  • At the heart of this definition are the four negative statements:
    • Without confusion: The Lord Jesus Christ is not what you get when you mix blue and yellow together and end up with green. He’s not a third kind of thing, the result of mixing a divine and human nature.
    • Without change: In assuming human flesh, Jesus did not cease to be what He had always been. The incarnation affected no substantial change in the divine Son
    • Without division: The two natures of Christ do not represent a split in the divine Person. Jesus Christ is not half God and half man.
    • Without separation: The union of the human and divine in the person of Jesus Christ is a real, organic union, not simply a moral sympathy or relational partnership.
  • Chalcedon’s careful definition is meant to preserve the biblical teaching that: The divine nature was united, in the person of the Son, with a human nature
    • John 1:14, “The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.”
    • Rom. 8:3, “For what the law was powerless to do because it was weakened by the flesh, God did by sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh to be a sin offering. And so he condemned sin in the flesh,”
    • 1 Tim. 3:16, “Beyond all question, the mystery from which true godliness springs is great: He appeared in the flesh, was vindicated by the Spirit, was seen by angels, was preached among the nations, was believed on in the world, was taken up in glory.
    • Heb. 2:14, “Since the children have flesh and blood, He too shared in their humanity so that by his death he might break the power of him who holds the power of death—that is, the devil”

The two natures are united in only one divine Person

  • Rom. 1:3, “regarding his Son, who as to his earthly life was a descendant of David”
    • , “But when the set time had fully come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law”
  • Phil. 2:6-8, “Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be used to his own advantage; rather, he made himself nothing by taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness. And being found in appearance as a man, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to death – even death on a cross!

As Chalcedon puts it, the characteristics of each nature are preserved – in no way annulled by the union – even as they come together in one person and one subsistence (hypostasis).

Why it Matters

  • It was humanity that earned the penalty of sin, so only humanity could pay for it
  • But only God could afford to pay the price for mankind’s sin

Gal. 4:4-5, “But when the set time had fully come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, to redeem those under the law, that we might receive adoption to sonship.”

2 Corinthians 5:21, “God made him who had no sin to be sin for us, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.”

Leviticus 17:11, “For the life of a creature is in the blood, and I have given it to you to make atonement for yourselves on the altar; it is the blood that makes atonement for one’s life.”

Hebrews 9:22, “In fact, the law requires that nearly everything be cleansed with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.”

SESSION 4: Atonement for Sin

In whose Person is effected the reconciliation between God and man

  • 1 Corinthians 1:30, “Christ Jesus, who became for us wisdom from God—and righteousness and sanctification and redemption”
  • Colossians 1:13-14, 18-22, “ He has delivered us from the power of  darkness and conveyed us into the kingdom of the Son of His love, 14 in whom we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins. 18 And He is the head of the body, the church, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, that in all things He may have the preeminence. 19 For it pleased the Father that in Him all the fullness should dwell, 20 and by Him to reconcile all things to Himself, by Him, whether things on earth or things in heaven, having made peace through the blood of His cross. 21 And you, who once were alienated and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now He has reconciled 22 in the body of His flesh through death, to present you holy, and blameless, and above reproach in His sight—
  • Romans 8:3, “For what the law could not do in that it was weak through the flesh, God did by sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, on account of sin: He condemned sin in the flesh,”

In His substitutionary death on the cross, He made provision for the redemption of men from sin.

  • John 1:29, “The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, “Behold! The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!”
  • 1 Corinthians 15:3, “ For I delivered to you first of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures,
  • 2 Corinthians 5:19-21, “that is, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not imputing their trespasses to them, and has committed to us the word of reconciliation. 20 Now then, we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God were pleading through us: we implore you on Christ’s behalf, be reconciled to God. 21 For He made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.
  • 2 Corinthians 8:9, “For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though He was rich, yet for your sakes He became poor, that you through His poverty might become rich.
  • 1 Timothy 2:5-6, “For there is one God and one Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus, who gave Himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time,
  • Titus 2:13-14, “looking for the blessed hope and glorious appearing of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ, 14 who gave Himself for us, that He might redeem us from every lawless deed and purify for Himself His own special people, zealous for good works.
  • Romans 3:23-26, “f or all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, 24 being justified freely by His grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus25 whom God set forth as a propitiation by His blood, through faith, to demonstrate His righteousness, because in His forbearance God had passed over the sins that were previously committed, 26 to demonstrate at the present time His righteousness, that He might be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus.

Views of the Atonement

Ransom Theory

  • When Christ died, He paid a price to Satan in order to secure our release from bondage to Satan’s kingdom.
  • Mark 10:45, “For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many.”
  • 1 Timothy 2:5-6, “For there is one God and one Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus, who gave Himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time,

Recapitulation Theory

  • The atonement of Christ has reversed the course of mankind from disobedience to obedience.

Dramatic Theory

  • The atonement of Christ as securing the victory in a divine conflict between good and evil and winning man’s release from bondage to Satan.
  • The meaning of Christ’s death was to ensure God’s victory over Satan and to provide a way to redeem the world out of its bondage to evil.

Mystical Theory

  • The atonement of Christ is a triumph over His own sinful nature through the power of the Holy Spirit. Knowledge of Christ’s example overcoming sin awakens our “god-consciousness.”
  • To believe this, one must believe that Christ had a sin nature, while Scripture is clear that Jesus was the perfect God-man, sinless in every aspect of His nature (Hebrews 4:15).

Moral Influence Theory

  • The atonement of Christ is a demonstration of God’s love which causes man’s heart to soften and repent.
  • This view of Christ’s atonement leaves mankind without a true sacrifice or payment for sin.
  • Ultimately comes down to works.

Example Theory

  • The atonement of Christ is simply providing an example of faith and obedience to inspire man to be obedient to God.
  • Of course, it is true that Christ is an example for us to follow, even in His death, but the example theory fails to recognize man’s true spiritual condition and that God’s justice requires payment for sin which man is not capable of paying.

Commercial Theory

  • The atonement of Christ brings infinite honor to God. This resulted in God giving Christ a reward which He did not need, and Christ passed that reward on to man.
  • Man’s spiritual condition is that of dishonoring God and so Christ’s death, which brought infinite honor to God, can be applied to sinners for salvation.
  • This theory denies the true spiritual state of unregenerate sinners and their need of a completely new nature, available only in Christ (2 Corinthians 5:17).

Governmental Theory

  • The atonement of Christ demonstrates God’s high regard for His law and His attitude toward sin.
  • Man’s spiritual condition is as one who has violated God’s moral law.
  • The meaning of Christ’s death was to be a substitute for the penalty of sin.
  • Because Christ paid the penalty for sin, it is possible for God to legally forgive those who accept Christ as their substitute.
  • This view falls short in that it does not teach that Christ actually paid the penalty of the actual sins of any people, but instead His suffering simply showed mankind that God’s laws were broken and that some penalty was paid.

Christus Victor

  • Latin for “Christ is the conqueror”
  • Originated in 1931 by Gustaf Aulén
  • Christus Victor asserts that “the work of Christ is first and foremost a victory over the powers which hold mankind in bondage: sin, death, and the devil.”

Flaws

  • Based on the rejection of the atonement as a legal exercise.
  • The Bible clearly presents the suffering of Christ as a propitiation, or satisfaction (Romans 3:25).
  • “It was the LORD’s will to crush him and cause him to suffer, and . . . the LORD makes his life an offering for sin” (Isaiah 53:10).

Penal Substitution

  • Jesus’ sacrifice on the cross takes the place of the punishment we ought to suffer for our sins. As a result, God’s justice is satisfied, and those who accept Christ can be forgiven and reconciled to God.
  • Romans 6:23, “For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.”
  • Romans 3:23, “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God”
  • Romans 8:3, “For what the law could not do in that it was weak through the flesh, God did by sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, on account of sin: He condemned sin in the flesh,”
  • 1 Peter 2:24, “[Christ] bore our sins in His own body on the tree, that we, having died to sins, might live for righteousness—by whose stripes you were healed.”
  • Romans 3:24-25, “being justified freely by His grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, 25 whom God set forth as a propitiation by His blood”

Propitiation

  • The idea of appeasement or satisfaction, specifically toward God.
  • Two Parts
    • Appeasing the wrath of an offended person
    • Being reconciled to them

Objections

Why crucify Jesus? Why couldn’t God just forgive?

  • God is just. He cannot turn a blind eye to sin.
  • In order to forgive, you take the debt that the other person owes on yourself.
  • The penalty that we owe, is

How can one person pay for another’s sin? Isn’t that unjust to punish one person for sins another committed?

  • Jesus volunteered
    • John 10:18, “No one takes it from Me, but I lay it down of Myself.”
  • Jesus is the offended party, ie. God.
  • Vicarious Liability exists in other areas of life
    • Parents/Children
    • Employer/Employee
    • Commanding Officers/Soldier
    • Contracts (Indemnity) / Co-signing
    • Felony murder applies to accomplices

How can one bad weekend pay for an eternity of punishment?

  • Sin against an infinite God owes an infinite debt.
  • There are only two options for infinite payment.
  • A finite creature (man) must pay for an infinite amount of time,
  • An infinite Being (Jesus) can pay for it once.
  • EX: You making minimum payments on your credit card VS Bill Gates assuring all of your debts past and future.

How could something so violent and cruel be considered an act of love?

  • Romans 5:8, “God shows his love for us in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us”
  • We must understand the seriousness of sin.
    • We justly deserve punishment, and our crimes are capital offenses.
  • At its core, love is self-sacrificing.
    • John 15:13, “Greater love has no one than this, than to lay down one’s life for his friends.”

SESSION 5: Raised to Glory

He was raised from the dead with a glorified body and appeared to His disciples as the person who was with them before His crucifixion.

  • Matthew 28:5-6, “But the angel answered and said to the women, “Do not be afraid, for I know that you seek Jesus who was crucified. He is not here; for He is risen, as He said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay.
  • Luke 24:46, “Then He said to them, “Thus it is written, [a]and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day,”
  • Romans 1:3-4, “concerning His Son Jesus Christ our Lord, who [a]was born of the seed of David according to the flesh, and declared to be the Son of God with power according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead.”
  • Acts 2:22-24, ““Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a Man attested by God to you by miracles, wonders, and signs which God did through Him in your midst, as you yourselves also know— 23 Him, being delivered by the determined purpose and foreknowledge of God, you have taken by lawless hands, have crucified, and put to death; 24 whom God raised up, having loosed the pains of death, because it was not possible that He should be held by it.
  • Ephesians 1:20, “[God] raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places,

Post-Mortem Appearances

Early Creed dating to within a few ears of Jesus’ Crucifixion:

1 Corinthians 15:1-8, “Moreover, brethren, I declare to you the gospel which I preached to you, which also you received and in which you stand, by which also you are saved, if you hold fast that word which I preached to you—unless you believed in vain. For I delivered to you first of all that which I also received:

that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, 

and that He was buried,

and that He rose again the third day according to the Scriptures, 

and that He was seen by [a]Cephas, then by the twelve. 

After that He was seen by over five hundred brethren at once, of whom the greater part remain to the present, but some have [b]fallen asleep. 

After that He was seen by James, then by all the apostles. 

Then last of all He was seen by me also, as by one born out of due time.

Peter

  • Do not know exactly when
  • Luke 24:33-34, “So they rose up that very hour and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven and those who were with them gathered together, 34 saying, “The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon!”

The Twelve

  • Luke 24:36-43
  • John 20:19-20
  • Mark 16:14-18, Gathered at a Table
  • Matthew 28:16-20, On a Mountain in Galilee
  • Luke 24:36-53
  • John 20:19-23, Without Thomas
  • John 20:26-29, With Thomas
  • John 21, By the Sea of Galilee

Five Hundred

  • Not recorded in Scripture, but Paul states that these people are still alive, challenging his readers to find and ask them.

James the Brother of Jesus

  • Appearance Not Recorded in Scripture
  • Evidenced by James’ total change of heart
  • James Doubts Jesus Before Crucifixion and Resurrection
    • John 7:1-10, His brothers mock Jesus,
    • v5 “For even His brothers did not believe in Him.”
    • Mark 3:21, Jesus’ family thinks He is crazy
  • James is a Disciple and Leader in the Church after The Resurrection
    • Acts 1:14, Praying in the upper room in Jerusalem after the ascension
    • Acts 12:17, Peter, after release from prison, orders that James be informed
    • Galatians 1:19, Called an apostle by Paul
    • Galatians 2:9, Paul lists 3 pillars of the church in Jerusalem, one of which is James
    • Acts 21:18, James is the head of the Jerusalem church and council of elders
    • Historian Josephus says that James was stoned illegally by the Sanhedrin for his faith in Christ
  • A personal appearance best explains a skeptic brother coming to believe in Jesus?

Paul

  • Acts 9 on the way to Damascus
  • Persecutor turned Apostle

Mary Magdalene

  • Mark 16:9
  • John 20:11-18

Group of Women Followers

  • Matthew 29:9-10

Unnamed Disciples on the Road to Emmaus

  • Mark 16:12-13
  • Luke 24:13-32

Jesus appeared as the Person He was Before the Crucifixion

Luke 24:38-39, “And He said to them, “Why are you troubled? And why do doubts arise in your hearts? 39 Behold My hands and My feet, that it is I Myself. Handle Me and see, for a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see I have.” 40 When He had said this, He showed them His hands and His feet. 41 But while they still did not believe for joy, and marveled, He said to them, “Have you any food here?” 42 So they gave Him a piece of a broiled fish and some honeycomb. 43 And He took it and ate in their presence.

Also John 21 at the Sea of Galilee

Glorified Bodies

We will have glorified bodies in Heaven, like Christ’s

  • 2 Corinthians 5:1-8 (Tents & Houses)
  • 1 Corinthians 15:35-38 (Seeds & Grain)
  • Romans 6:5-11, “For if we have been united together in the likeness of His death, certainly we also shall be in the likeness of His resurrection”
  • Philippians 3:20-21, “For our citizenship is in heaven, from which we also eagerly wait for the Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ, 21 who will transform our lowly body that it may be conformed to His glorious body, according to the working by which He is able even to subdue all things to Himself.”

What is a Glorified Body Like?

Special Abilities?

  • John 20:19, “Then, the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the midst, and said to them, “Peace be with you.”
  • Luke 24:31, “Then their eyes were opened and they knew Him; and He vanished from their sight.”
  • Jesus could do miracles before His glorified body

Free from the Effects of Sin

  • 1 Corinthians 15:42-49, “42 So also is the resurrection of the dead. The body is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption. 43 It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness, it is raised in power. 44 It is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body. 45 And so it is written, “The first man Adam became a living being.” The last Adam became a life-giving spirit 46 However, the spiritual is not first, but the natural, and afterward the spiritual. 47 The first man was of the earth, made of dust; the second Man is the Lord from heaven. 48 As was the man of dust, so also are those who are made of dust; and as is the heavenly Man, so also are those who are heavenly. 49 And as we have borne the image of the man of dust, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly Man.
    • Incorruption: No longer get sick and wear down or grow old and die.
    • Glory: Freed from the curse of sin and death.
    • Power: Amazing as our bodies are now, they are weak and constrained compared to what they were made to be like and will be again.
    • Spiritual: NOT “immaterial”, but a reference to godliness. Effects of sin are gone.

Proving the Resurrection

1 Corinthians 15:14, “if Christ is not risen, then our preaching is empty and your faith is also empty.”

Minimal F.A.C.T.S. (Dr Braxton Hunter)

Fatal

  • Jesus was crucified under Pontius Pilate

Appearance

  • Jesus’ Followers Sincerely believed they saw Him alive again

Committed

  • They were willing to die for that claim

Testimony of History

  • Jesus’ profound impact on the world

Salvation

  • Only Jesus offers a solution to sin

SESSION 6: The Return of the King

IN THIS SESSION

He ascended into heaven and is now exalted at the right hand of God where He is the One Mediator. He will return in power and glory to judge the world and to consummate His redemptive mission. He now dwells in all believers as the living and ever present Lord.

He ascended into heaven and is now exalted at the right hand of God …

  • John 16:28, “ I came forth from the Father and have come into the world. Again, I leave the world and go to the Father.”
  • Acts 1:9, “Now when He had spoken these things, while they watched, He was taken up, and a cloud received Him out of their sight.
  • Acts 7:55-56, “But he, being full of the Holy Spirit, gazed into heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing at the right hand of God, 56 and said, “Look! I see the heavens opened and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God!”
  • Ephesians 1:20, “[God] raised Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places,
  • Philippians 2:9, “Therefore God also has highly exalted Him and given Him the name which is above every name, 
  • Hebrews 12:2, “looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith, who for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.

Why is being “at the right hand of God” important?

  • A place of honor and a position that shares power with the King
    • Christ is of equal position, honor, power, and authority with God (John 1:1-5).
    • The Messiah is seated at God’s right hand (Matthew 22:41-45; Psalm 110:1)

… where He is the One Mediator

  • 1 Timothy 2:5, “For there is one God and one Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus”
  • Romans 8:34, “It is Christ who died, and furthermore is also risen, who is even at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us.”
  • 1 John 2:1, “My little children, these things I write to you, so that you may not sin. And if anyone sins, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous.”
  • Hebrews 9:15, “He is the Mediator of the new covenant, by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions under the first covenant, that those who are called may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance.”

He will return in power and glory …

  • John 14:3, “If I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you to Myself, that where I am, there you may be also.”
  • Acts 1:10-11, “And while they looked steadfastly toward heaven as He went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel, 11 who also said, “Men of Galilee, why do you stand gazing up into heaven? This same Jesus, who was taken up from you into heaven, will so come in like manner as you saw Him go into heaven.”
  • 1 Thessalonians 4:16, “… the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of an archangel, and with the trumpet of God. 

Why did Christ go away to begin with? Why not establish the Kingdom 2000 years ago?

For the Great Commission

  • Matthew 28:19-20, “make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 20 teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you”
  • 2 Peter 3:9, “The Lord is not slack concerning His promise, as some count slackness, but is longsuffering toward us, not willing that any should perish but that all should come to repentance.”
  • Matthew 24:14, “And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached in all the world as a witness to all the nations, and then the end will come.
  • 2 Thessalonians 2:1-4, “Now, brethren, concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our gathering together to Him, we ask you, 2 not to be soon shaken in mind or troubled, either by spirit or by word or by letter, as if from us, as though the day of Christ had come. 3 Let no one deceive you by any means; for that Day will not come unless the falling away comes first, and the man of sin is revealed, the son of perdition, 4 who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called God or that is worshiped, so that he sits as God in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God.”

… to judge the world …

  • Titus 2:13-14, “[We are] looking for the blessed hope and glorious appearing of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ, 14 who gave Himself for us, that He might redeem us from every lawless deed and purify for Himself His own special people, zealous for good works.
  • 1 Peter 3:22, “[Christ] has gone into heaven and is at the right hand of God, angels and authorities and powers having been made subject to Him.
  • Matthew 16:27, “For the Son of Man will come in the glory of His Father with His angels, and then He will reward each according to his works.”
  • 1 Corinthians 15:24-25, “Then comes the end, when He delivers the kingdom to God the Father, when He puts an end to all rule and all authority and power. 25 For He must reign till He has put all enemies under His feet.
  • Revelation 22:12, “Behold, I am coming quickly, and My reward is with Me, to render to every man according to what he has done.”
  • Revelation 19:11-16, “Now I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse. And He who sat on him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness He judges and makes war. 12 His eyes were like a flame of fire, and on His head were many crowns. He [e]had a name written that no one knew except Himself. 13 He was clothed with a robe dipped in blood, and His name is called The Word of God. 14 And the armies in heaven, clothed in [f]fine linen, white and clean, followed Him on white horses. 15 Now out of His mouth goes a [g]sharp sword, that with it He should strike the nations. And He Himself will rule them with a rod of iron. He Himself treads the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. 16 And He has on His robe and on His thigh a name written: KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS.”

Why judge at all? Why not just forgive?

            God is just (See session on the Atonement)

… and to consummate His redemptive mission

  • Philippians 1:6, “He who has begun a good work in you will complete it”
  • Hebrews 12:2, “looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith, who for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.
  • Philippians 3:21, “[Christ] will transform our lowly body that it may be conformed to His glorious body”
  • 1 John 3:2, “Beloved, now we are children of God; and it has not yet been revealed what we shall be, but we know that when He is revealed, we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is.
  • Even Nature is Restored: Romans 8:21, “the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of corruption”

Why leave us to struggle with our fallenness as we wait?

For our own development

  • James 1:3, “the testing of your faith produces patience (endurance/perseverance).”
  • Romans 5:3-4, “And not only that, but we also glory in tribulations, knowing that tribulation produces perseverance; 4 and perseverance, character; and character, hope.”
  • 2 Corinthians 4:17, “For our light affliction, which is but for a moment, is working for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory,
  • What is earned/developed is appreciated more than that which is given
  • Teach us the repugnance of sin.

He now dwells in all believers as the living and ever present Lord.

  • Galatians 2:20, “I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave Himself for me.
  • 1 John 4:14-15, “And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent the Son as Savior of the world. 15 Whoever confesses that Jesus is the Son of God, God abides in him, and he in God.
  • , “But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you. Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he is not His. And if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is life because of righteousness.”
  • , “that He would grant you, according to the riches of His glory, to be strengthened with might through His Spirit in the inner man, 17 that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith”
  • , “Jesus answered and said to him, “If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our home with him.”

What does it mean that Christ is IN us?

  • The Manifest Presence in our lives
    • Convicting us of sin
    • Encouraging and Strengthening us
    • My Heart Christ’s Home, Robert Munger (InterVarsity Press, 1954): Describes the Christian life as a house. When Jesus enters, He goes from room to room.
      • In the library of our minds, Christ sorts through the garbage, cleaning out the worthless trash.
      • In the kitchen, he deals with our unhealthy appetites and sinful desires.
      • At the dining room table, He serves us the bread of life to satisfy our hungry souls and pours living water for us to drink and never be thirsty again.
      • Through dark hallways and closets, Jesus uncovers all the places where sin hides. He works His way through every nook and cranny until His love, mercy, forgiveness, and grace have filled every space.

Be The Church 2022

We begin the year with a look at what it means to be The Church.

Jan 2, “The Body of Christ” (1 Corinthians 12:12-26, Galatians 4:1-7)

Jan 9, “Sons and Daughters” (John 1:10-13)

Jan 16, “Ambassadors” (2 Corinthians 5:18-21)

Jan 23, “A People Who Seek Justice” (Isaiah 1:16-17)

January 30, “A People Who Learn

February 6, “A People Who Worship” (Psalm 29)

February 13, “A People Who Pray” (Hebrews 4:16)

February 20, “A People Who Serve”

February 27th, “A People Who Celebrate”

February 27, “A People Who Celebrate”